dask_ml.preprocessing.StandardScaler
dask_ml.preprocessing
.StandardScaler¶
- class dask_ml.preprocessing.StandardScaler(*, copy=True, with_mean=True, with_std=True)¶
Standardize features by removing the mean and scaling to unit variance.
The standard score of a sample x is calculated as:
z = (x - u) / s
where u is the mean of the training samples or zero if with_mean=False, and s is the standard deviation of the training samples or one if with_std=False.
Centering and scaling happen independently on each feature by computing the relevant statistics on the samples in the training set. Mean and standard deviation are then stored to be used on later data using
transform()
.Standardization of a dataset is a common requirement for many machine learning estimators: they might behave badly if the individual features do not more or less look like standard normally distributed data (e.g. Gaussian with 0 mean and unit variance).
For instance many elements used in the objective function of a learning algorithm (such as the RBF kernel of Support Vector Machines or the L1 and L2 regularizers of linear models) assume that all features are centered around 0 and have variance in the same order. If a feature has a variance that is orders of magnitude larger than others, it might dominate the objective function and make the estimator unable to learn from other features correctly as expected.
StandardScaler is sensitive to outliers, and the features may scale differently from each other in the presence of outliers. For an example visualization, refer to Compare StandardScaler with other scalers.
This scaler can also be applied to sparse CSR or CSC matrices by passing with_mean=False to avoid breaking the sparsity structure of the data.
Read more in the User Guide.
- Parameters
- copybool, default=True
If False, try to avoid a copy and do inplace scaling instead. This is not guaranteed to always work inplace; e.g. if the data is not a NumPy array or scipy.sparse CSR matrix, a copy may still be returned.
- with_meanbool, default=True
If True, center the data before scaling. This does not work (and will raise an exception) when attempted on sparse matrices, because centering them entails building a dense matrix which in common use cases is likely to be too large to fit in memory.
- with_stdbool, default=True
If True, scale the data to unit variance (or equivalently, unit standard deviation).
- Attributes
- scale_ndarray of shape (n_features,) or None
Per feature relative scaling of the data to achieve zero mean and unit variance. Generally this is calculated using np.sqrt(var_). If a variance is zero, we can’t achieve unit variance, and the data is left as-is, giving a scaling factor of 1. scale_ is equal to None when with_std=False.
New in version 0.17: scale_
- mean_ndarray of shape (n_features,) or None
The mean value for each feature in the training set. Equal to
None
whenwith_mean=False
andwith_std=False
.- var_ndarray of shape (n_features,) or None
The variance for each feature in the training set. Used to compute scale_. Equal to
None
whenwith_mean=False
andwith_std=False
.- n_features_in_int
Number of features seen during fit.
New in version 0.24.
- feature_names_in_ndarray of shape (n_features_in_,)
Names of features seen during fit. Defined only when X has feature names that are all strings.
New in version 1.0.
- n_samples_seen_int or ndarray of shape (n_features,)
The number of samples processed by the estimator for each feature. If there are no missing samples, the
n_samples_seen
will be an integer, otherwise it will be an array of dtype int. If sample_weights are used it will be a float (if no missing data) or an array of dtype float that sums the weights seen so far. Will be reset on new calls to fit, but increments acrosspartial_fit
calls.
See also
scale
Equivalent function without the estimator API.
PCA
Further removes the linear correlation across features with ‘whiten=True’.
Notes
NaNs are treated as missing values: disregarded in fit, and maintained in transform.
We use a biased estimator for the standard deviation, equivalent to numpy.std(x, ddof=0). Note that the choice of ddof is unlikely to affect model performance.
Examples
>>> from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler >>> data = [[0, 0], [0, 0], [1, 1], [1, 1]] >>> scaler = StandardScaler() >>> print(scaler.fit(data)) StandardScaler() >>> print(scaler.mean_) [0.5 0.5] >>> print(scaler.transform(data)) [[-1. -1.] [-1. -1.] [ 1. 1.] [ 1. 1.]] >>> print(scaler.transform([[2, 2]])) [[3. 3.]]
Methods
fit
(X[, y])Compute the mean and std to be used for later scaling.
fit_transform
(X[, y])Fit to data, then transform it.
get_feature_names_out
([input_features])Get output feature names for transformation.
get_metadata_routing
()Get metadata routing of this object.
get_params
([deep])Get parameters for this estimator.
inverse_transform
(X[, copy])Scale back the data to the original representation.
partial_fit
(X[, y])Online computation of mean and std on X for later scaling.
set_fit_request
(*[, sample_weight])Request metadata passed to the
fit
method.set_inverse_transform_request
(*[, copy])Request metadata passed to the
inverse_transform
method.set_output
(*[, transform])Set output container.
set_params
(**params)Set the parameters of this estimator.
set_partial_fit_request
(*[, sample_weight])Request metadata passed to the
partial_fit
method.set_transform_request
(*[, copy])Request metadata passed to the
transform
method.transform
(X[, y, copy])Perform standardization by centering and scaling.
- __init__(*, copy=True, with_mean=True, with_std=True)¶